800px-great_lakes_3

by Ben Merriman

The deep wells that supply Waukesha, Wisconsin’s drinking water are contaminated with radium.

In 2010, the city, a wealthy suburb of Milwaukee, decided to pursue a costly but permanent solution to the contamination: Waukesha sought permission to replace its wells with a supply of water from Lake Michigan, a little over ten miles away. The proposal underwent several years of review in Wisconsin. In spring 2016, Waukesha’s application for Lake Michigan water was brought before a gathering of senior environmental officials from all the states and provinces in the Great Lakes region. After some modification, the proposal was unanimously approved by the eight member states of the Great Lakes Compact, a new regional agreement for managing the Great Lakes.

Environmental groups opposed this proposal at every step of state and regional review. In a recent paper, I tried to explain (1) why Waukesha’s proposal, which was meant to provide safe drinking water, attracted such strong opposition from environmental groups, (2) why this passionate opposition came to be stated in such legalistic, politically unexpressive terms, and (3) how the Waukesha controversy might have larger effects on water safety issues in the Great Lakes.

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Rexnord, whose employees are the latest victims of shifting work to Mexico (Photo via New York Times)

 

Happy Friday! We’re excited to be back after our technical difficulties last week.

 

The Power Pose*

When the Revolution Came for Amy Cuddy (New York Times Magazine)

Beyond “power pose”: Using replication failures and a better understanding of data collection and analysis to do better science (Andrew Gelman)

 

When Work Disappears

Becoming a Steelworker Liberated Her. Then Her Job Moved to Mexico. (New York Times)

After the check is gone (The Washington Post)

The right way to help declining places (The Economist)

‘There’s no future for taxis’: New York yellow cab drivers are slowly drowning in debt (The Guardian)

 

Progress by the Dollar

How Money Became the Measure of Everything (The Atlantic)

 

On Campus

The Decline of the Midwest’s Public Universities Threatens to Wreck Its Most Vibrant Economies (The Atlantic)

Protesters heckle Richard Spencer at Univ. of Florida talk (CNN)

When Conservatives Suppress Campus Speech (New York Times)

College Advice I Wish I’d Taken (New York Times)

A better way to search through scientific papers (The Economist)

Oxford accused of ‘social apartheid’ as colleges admit no black students (The Guardian)

houses-2230817_960_720by Pilar Gonalons-Pons and Christine R. Schwartz

Assortative mating – the tendency of people to marry those similar to themselves – has become a popular explanation for increased economic inequality across American families (see the NYT, the Economist, or the NYT Upshot).

The idea is that if people are increasingly matching with partners who have similar economic prospects, families will be increasingly divided between those who pool two large paychecks and those who pool two small paychecks. More assortative mating increases spouses’ economic similarity, which in turn increases inequality.

Our research, however, shows that assortative mating has played a minor role in the increase of spouses’ economic similarity and its impact on inequality. More important than changes in whom people marry are changes in what happens after they marry. In particular, the well-known and dramatic increase in wives’ employment within marriage are responsible for the bulk of the effects of increased spousal economic resemblance on inequality.

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kiviat

by Barbara Kiviat

Credit reports are on people’s minds these days, thanks to the massive data breach at Equifax that exposed the sensitive personal information of some 145.5 million Americans. With social security numbers and birth dates in hand, hackers can fraudulently open credit cards and take out loans in victims’ names. When these accounts fall into delinquency, it will look like the victims have failed to pay off their debts.

That will be a problem for borrowing money in the future—and also perhaps for landing a new job. About half of U.S. employers at least sometimes check job candidates’ credit history, largely based on the idea that a person who doesn’t pay off their debts is untrustworthy and irresponsible, and therefore dangerous to have in the workplace, especially around money.

In recent years, sociologists have pointed out the risk of cumulative disadvantage that comes from using a person’s experiences in the credit market to determine their chances in the labor market. Consumer advocates have also underscored how the practice can hurt racial minorities, whose credit could be bad through personal fault—or generations of discrimination. Since the Equifax data hack, concerns about credit report inaccuracies have taken center stage, as well. Even before the breach, a full quarter of Americans had a mistake on at least one of their reports.

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Angeletti

by Thomas Angeletti

“Banks got bailed out, we got sold out” was one of the slogans heard in the Occupy movement in 2011. At that time, such critiques of financial institutions grew strongly. Banks were portrayed as being responsible for the crisis and simultaneously receiving important support from states, especially in the form of bailouts.

These critiques did not just interrogate the moral responsibility of banks: they have also called attention to the extent of fraud in the financial industry, and therefore on their potential criminal responsibility. Indeed, while a 2017 report shows that banks paid more than $321 billion in penalties since the crisis, only a few actors have been prosecuted.

But how do financial actors actually respond to such accusations, when facing public blame as well as criminal charges?

To answer this question, I engaged in an ethnographic investigation on the first criminal trial of a trader as part of the Libor scandal, which took place in London in the summer of 2015. In this recent study, I found that the reference to rules plays a key role in justifying one’s behaviors in relation to financial fraud.

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supermomdadby Wike Been, Tanja van der Lippe and Maria das Dores Horta Guerreiro

When Marissa Mayer of Yahoo! took over from her predecessor, she reduced the flexible working options of employees. After he became a father, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook extended parental leave options.

These examples show that top managers of organizations are of vital importance for work-life arrangements: policies within organizations that help employees combine work and private life.

There are different kinds of work-life policies. For example, the possibility to have flexible starting and ending times of a working day (flextime), the possibility to work from home (telecommuting), the reduction of working time (part-time work hours), the extension of statutory leave options and the provision of on-site childcare.

There are important organizational differences in the extent of work-life arrange provided to employees. For example, organizations in the public sector tend to provide more options as do larger organizations. Also, the number of work-life arrangements provided by work organizations to employees varies between countries.

When do top managers support the provision of work-life arrangements to employees in their organizations? And how does the context of the organization and country affect the conditions under which top managers are supporting the provision of work-life arrangements?

A recent study looks into these questions in the context of five European countries: Finland, Portugal, UK, Slovenia and the Netherlands.

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Fearless girl statute in New York City. An audit of the firm that designed it revealed they had been systematically underpaying women and minorities. (Photo via Boston Globe)

Here is our latest collection of the news and essays we’ve been reading. Happy Friday!

 

Equifax

Equifax makes money by knowing a lot about you (Seattle Times)

How the Equifax Hack Could Hurt Anyone Applying for a Job (The Atlantic)

 

At Work

It’s nine years since the recession. So why are employers still stingy with raises? (Washington Post)

The gender pay gap that still needs to be closed (The Economist)

The firm that brought us ‘Fearless Girl’ was underpaying women, U.S. government says (Washington Post)

 

Cuba

Clueless on Cuba’s economy (The Economist)

A ‘Sonic Attack’ on Diplomats in Cuba? These Scientists Doubt It (New York Times)

U.S. expulsion of Cuban diplomats includes all business officers (Reuters)

 

Gender

Super Awesome Sylvia was a role model to girls in science. Then he realized he is a boy. (Washington Post)

The Department of Justice Takes a Stand Against Transgender Rights in the Workplace (The Atlantic)

Should Universities Ban Single-Gender Discussion Panels? (The Chronicle)

 

Tensions on Campus

Confederate Flags With Cotton Found on American University Campus (New York Times)

After a Speaker Is Shouted Down, William & Mary Becomes New Flash Point in Free-Speech Fight (The Chronicle)

Racist Incidents Plague U. of Michigan, Angering Students and Testing Leaders (The Chronicle)

Death at a Penn State Fraternity (The Atlantic)