Then San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick after a game (via ESPN)

Here is a collection of what we’ve been reading this week. Happy Friday!



After Anthem Protests, N.F.L. Plots a Careful Path Forward (New York Times)

Football has Always Been a Battleground in the Culture War (The Atlantic)

Football really is America’s religion. That’s what made the NFL protests so powerful. (Vox)


Puerto Rico

At the U. of Puerto Rico, Widespread Damage and Anxiety After Maria (The Chronicle)

The Jones Act, the obscure 1920 shipping regulation strangling Puerto Rico, explained (Vox)



Trans Teen’s Murder Case Raises Question: Do LGBTQ Hate Crime Laws Work? (NBC)

Trump Administration Will Urge Court to Rule Against Gay Workers’ Rights (NBC)

U.S. No Longer Playing Leading Role in UN’s LGBTQ Human Rights Group (NBC)


On Campus

Amid Professors’ ‘Doom-and-Gloom Talk,’ Humanities Ph.D. Applications Drop (The Chronicle)

Racist Symbols Are Found at American U. After Launch of Anti-Racist Center (The Chronicle)

Virginia Tech professor accused of scamming National Science Foundation (Washington Post)


Spatial Inequality

America’s Most and Least Distressed Cities (CityLab)

Why Texas Is No Longer Feeling Miraculous (New York Times)


by Laura Hanson Schlachter

The United States is experiencing an explosion of interest in worker cooperatives: firms owned and democratically governed by workers according to the principle of one worker, one vote.  According to a forthcoming report by the Democracy at Work Institute, two-thirds of American worker co-ops formed after 2000 and the sector has grown 8.5 percent since 2013.

Although some of the energy is coming from longtime employee ownership advocates, a surprising number of unions are also wading into the worker co-op development game.

Union interest was catalyzed, in part, by a 2009 agreement to promote union co-ops between the United Steelworkers (USW) and the Mondragon worker cooperatives in Spain.  The agreement marked a turning point in the debate about whether unions and worker co-ops are stronger together.  It also helped inspire a new generation of start-up efforts explicitly emulating the USW-Mondragon model.

Democratic worker ownership can offer employment stability, solidarity, wealth accumulation, and other benefits to workers.  Yet scaling up worker co-ops is no easy task.  Low formation rates, cultural individualism, lack of financing, and unwieldy governance structures are major constraints.

Can directly engaging unions in the worker cooperative formation process help make democratic worker ownership more widely available to workers?

In a recent study, I identify six possibilities and dilemmas of union involvement in worker cooperative development through a case study of the Cincinnati Union Co-op Initiative.  This nonprofit incubator has launched three union co-ops since 2011 and become a hub for efforts to implement the USW-Mondragon model across the country.

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Protesters in St. Louis on Monday, September 18 via The Chicago Tribune

Here is a selection of the news articles and essays we’ve been reading this week.


Policing in America

Shooting of Georgia Tech student stirs old debate, with new questions (Atlanta Journal-Constitution)

Audio released of 911 call by Georgia Tech student killed by police (Washington Post)

George Tech Cop Who Shot LGBT Student Scout Schultz Wasn’t Trained in Dealing with Mentally Ill (Newsweek)

White ex-St. Louis cop acquitted in black suspect’s killing (St. Louis Post-Dispatch)

Department of Justice won’t prosecute Stockley for civil rights violation (St. Louis Post-Dispatch)

St. Louis police have fatally shot 8 armed people this year – the highest number in a decade (St. Louis Post-Dispatch)

As St. Louis simmers over Stockley verdict civil rights leaders say region must address inequality (St. Louis Public Radio)

Review Board Recommends Stiffest Punishment for Officer in Garner Case (New York Times)


On Campus

What Ole Miss Can Teach Universities About Grappling With Their Pasts (The Atlantic)

What DACA’s End Could Mean for Colleges (The Atlantic)

Dust-Up Involving Conservative Student Sparks Political Uproar in Nebraska (The Chronicle)

A Free-Speech Divide: Why students and professors may think differently about free expression (The Chronicle)


Labor and Work

Induction of union-busting Reagan into Labor’s Hall of Honor shocks union (Washington Post)

Uber Loses Its License to Operate in London (New York Times)

Irma is Most Recent Stop for ‘Adrenaline Junkies’ of Disaster Rescue Team (New York Times)


Immigration in the U.S.

What the Waiting List for Legal Residency Actually Looks Like (The Atlantic)

Labor Unions Are Stepping Up To Fight Deportations (Huffington Post)


In Uniform

Building Mentorship Out of Trauma (The Atlantic)

For the first time, the Marine Corps plans to have a female infantry officer among its ranks (Washington Post)

Black Detectives in New York Were Bypassed for Promotions, Panel Finds (New York Times)

team of successful business people having a meeting in executive

by Laura Doering and Sarah Thébaud

Sociologists have long argued that we don’t just gender-stereotype individual men and women. We gender-stereotype jobs as well. For instance, we tend to think of firefighters as masculine and preschool teachers as feminine.

This kind of stereotyping has important implications for all kinds of labor market outcomes. It shapes applicant pools, hiring decisions, pay, and performance evaluations, among other things.

But how quickly do jobs get gender stereotyped in the first place? And to what extent do such stereotypes affect the authority that men and women experience? Our research reveals that when we attach gender stereotypes to jobs, both women and men can experience disadvantage.

In our recently published study, we looked at how clients responded to managers in a job that was not already gender-stereotyped because it was relatively new and gender-balanced in its composition: a commercial microfinance loan manager.

Since this job had no clear gender association, we reasoned that clients would treat the role as masculine or feminine based on the first person with whom they interacted. That is, if a client was first paired with a male manager, that client would come to treat the role as if it were a “man’s job.” And if a client was first paired with a woman, he or she would treat the role as if it were a “woman’s job.”

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Antifa activists in Oakland, CA before an action (via The Washington Post)

Here are some of the articles and essays we read this week. Happy Friday!


Gender and Work

Gender Bias Suit Could Boost Pay, Promotions for Women at Google (Wired)

Nikon Picked 32 Photographers to Promote a Camera. All 32 Were Men. (New York Times)


Contingent Labor

Meet the Camperforce, Amazon’s Nomadic Retiree Army (Wired)


Campus Life

Boston College Graduate Employees Union Wins Election, Gains Collective Bargaining Rights (The Heights)

From Prison to Ph.D.: The Redemption and Rejection of Michelle Jones (New York Times)

Is Free Speech Really Challenged on Campus? (The Atlantic)



What the Rich Won’t Tell You (New York Times)


No Fascist USA!

‘No Fascist USA!’: how hardcore punk fuels the Antifa movement (The Guardian)

Antifa: Guardians against fascism or lawless thrill-seekers? (Washington Post)

The Rise of Antifa (The Atlantic)


The Cajun Navy: Volunteers and Disasters

I downloaded an app. And suddenly, was part of the Cajun Navy. (Houston Chronicle)

Mother Of 9 Goes Door-To-Door As Part Of Yemen’s Anti-Cholera Brigade (NPR)

Finally, I came across an organization called Global D.I.R.T, which is mentioned in articles from The Washington Post on Hurricane Irma and U.S.A. Today on Hurricane Harvey.


by Liana Christin Landivar

Casual conversations and news articles are full of stories about overworked Americans who no longer clock in for the mythical 9-to-5. From working late nights at the office or at home after the kids have gone to bed or taking work on vacation, people feel like they are working 24/7.

Accounts of the lengthening workweek and time intensification resonate with workers who may feel greater time pressure and stress. Long hours are detrimental to work-life balance and research shows that long work-hour expectations push mothers out of the labor force.

Yet the evidence shows that work hours have not increased. Since the early 2000s, work hours have declined broadly across all occupational groups, and the share of men and women working full-time is at its lowest point since 1970. The work-hour decline predates the Great Recession and is not solely attributable to an increase in part-time work.

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by Lisa Wade

The average man thinks he’s smarter than the average woman. And women generally agree.

It starts early. At the age of five, most girls and boys think that their own sex is the smartest, a finding consistent with the idea that people tend to think more highly of people like themselves. Around age six, though, right when gender stereotypes tend to take hold among children, girls start reporting that they think boys are smarter, while boys continue to favor themselves and their male peers.

They may have learned this from their parents. Both mothers and fathers tend to think that their sons are smarter than their daughters. They’re more likely to ask Google if their son is a “genius” (though also whether they’re “stupid”). Regarding their daughters, they’re more likely to inquire about attractiveness.

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Golfers playing as the Eagle Creek wildfire rages behind them in Washington State and Oregon

This week we’re introducing our “Friday Roundup” – a weekly compilation of news articles and essays that we think might be of interest to our readers.

Race in America

DACA Dreams

Harvey, Irma, and the Burning West

Policing and Hospitals



Media headlines of late are challenging our presumptions about what is invisible labor.

Amazon, for instance, announced the opening of a store that eliminates the frontline job of cashiers – as well as the checkout lane and all the self-checkout machines. Instead, this work will be done through the automatic scanning of consumer movements around the store and on the shelves. Live employment will be diverted to locations behind the scenes, in labors of preparing and stocking the food.

Likewise, in my home state of Missouri, a waitress at Hooters was fired for failing to do the work of looking right on the job. That labor involved wearing a wig (bought at her own expense) to cover scar on her head after returning from brain surgery, and thus upholding gendered and sexualized appearance rules at work.

Even acts of resistance on the job are telling, like when an African-American employee broke a stained-glass window in the Yale dining hall where he washed dishes. Outraged by a scene depicting slaves picking cotton, he was no longer willing to do the work of idly supporting in a discriminatory organizational environment.

Automation, aesthetic labor, and racial tasks are examples of contemporary ways that the workplace is disempowering workers and submerging the types of tasks they are expected to do. This is the starting point of a new book I co-edited with two legal scholars, Marion Crain and Miriam Cherry.

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by Alexandra Killewald and Ian Lundberg

On average, in the United States, men earn more per hour when married than when single, even after adjusting for differences such as age and education. However, despite the suggestive evidence that marriage may exert a causal effect on men’s wages, we argue that closer inspection reveals little evidence of such a link.

Why might marriage increase men’s wages?

A prominent theory, originally advanced by Nobel prize-winning economist Gary Becker argues that couples tend to divide labor, with husbands specializing in paid work and wives in housework and child care. According to this theory, husbands can invest more time and effort in paid employment because they are freed from housework, thereby becoming more productive and earning higher wages. Prior tests of this theory by Hersch and Stratton and Pollmann-Schult, however, suggest that the division of labor within the household is not a satisfactory explanation. For one thing, men’s wages do not suddenly improve following marriage: men’s rapid wage growth begins before the marriage date and before the couple is living together, when it is implausible that men are already benefiting from a household division of labor.

Nevertheless, marriage might lead to wage growth for men for other reasons. One possibility is that it exerts a “settling down” effect on men that pays dividends at work. Marriage might also motivate men to seek higher-wage jobs in order to provide financially for their new family. While marriage licenses are signed on a specific day, relationships culminating in marriage typically develop over several years. If marital relationships induce men to behave in ways that increase their wages, unusually rapid increases in men’s wages prior to marriage may indicate that men begin to adjust their behavior in anticipation of marriage.

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